Comiskey Comet

 

Glancing Back, and Remembering Floyd Robinson

Fleet Floyd Robinson was a fixture in the Chicago White Sox outfield in the early 1960s. A solid hitter and sure-handed outfielder, Robinson was the offensive lynchpin for a White Sox team that, from 1963 to 1965, was the second-best American League team … to the New York Yankees and Minnesota Twins.

From 1961-1964, Floyd Robinson batted a combined .301 for the White Sox. He hit .312 in 1962, with a career-best 109 RBIs and led the American League with 45 doubles that season.

From 1961-1964, Floyd Robinson batted a combined .301 for the White Sox. He hit .312 in 1962, with a career-best 109 RBIs and led the American League with 45 doubles that season.

Robinson played semi-pro and minor league baseball from 1954 through 1957 when his team at the time, San Diego in the Pacific Coast League, became the AAA affiliate of first the Cleveland Indians and then the Chicago White Sox. The White Sox brought Robinson up for the last month of the 1960 season and he remained a starting outfielder for Chicago for seven seasons. He hit .310 in his rookie campaign of 1961, finishing third in balloting for the Rookie-of-the-Year award behind Don Schwall and Dick Howser.

Robinson hit .312 in 1962, with 11 home runs, 10 triples and 109 RBIs. He led the American League with 45 doubles. His batting average slipped to .283 in 1963, but he rebounded to hit .301 in 1964.

In both of those seasons, the White Sox finished second to the Yankees. Those White Sox teams were known for excellent pitching that carried a suspect offensive lineup. Robinson’s bat was critical to that lineup, and when his hitting productivity started to decline in 1965 (.265 batting average with 14 home runs and 66 RBIs), his days in Chicago became numbered. He hit .237 in 1966 and was dealt to the Cincinnati Reds for left-handed pitcher Jim O’Toole.

Robinson never regained the hitting magic from earlier in his career. He hit only .238 for the Reds in 1967 and hit for a combined .219 for the Oakland A’s and Boston Red Sox in 1968. He retired following the 1968 season with a career batting average of .283.

Learning to Trust the Knuckler

 

Glancing Back, and Remembering Wilbur Wood

Hall of Fame reliever Hoyt Wilhelm was not only the master of the knuckleball, but also its greatest evangelist. His promoting the pitch to bullpen teammates inspired at least two successful careers: one was the career of reliever Eddie Fisher, the other was the career of reliever-turned-starter Wilbur Wood.

Wilbur Wood had two successful major league careers – one as a reliever, the other as a starter. As a relief pitcher for the Chicago White Sox, Wood led the American League in appearances from 1968-1970, averaging 11 victories and 17 saves per season.

Wilbur Wood had two successful major league careers – one as a reliever, the other as a starter. As a relief pitcher for the Chicago White Sox, Wood led the American League in appearances from 1968-1970, averaging 11 victories and 17 saves per season.

Wood’s career was going nowhere when Wilhelm advised him to rely on his knuckleball and not simply treat it as an occasional trick pitch. Wood was signed by the Boston Red Sox in 1960 and pitched in the Bosox’s minor league system for five years with only occasional stops in Beantown.

He was purchased by the Pittsburgh Pirates in September of 1964 and finally won his first major league decision in 1965. He spent the 1966 season at the Pirates AAA affiliate in Columbus, going 15-8 before being traded to the Chicago White Sox for Juan Pizarro.

It was a trade that would change Wood’s career. He met Wilhelm, and listened.

He went 4-2 for the White Sox in 1967 with a 2.42 ERA. That was four times as many major league games as he had previously won in his career. In 1968 he set a major league record by appearing in 88 games, going 13-12 with a 1.87 ERA and 16 saves. In 1969 he made 76 appearances – all in relief – and went 10-11 with 15 saves. In 1970, his 77 relief appearances and 2.81 ERA produced a 9-13 record with 21 saves.

Then Wood made the last major transition of his career. He moved to the starting rotation, where the low physical stress of throwing the knuckleball allowed Wood to pitch more innings than any other starter in baseball – in fact more innings than any major league starter since the “Dead Ball” era prior to 1920. Wood went 22-13 in 1971 with a 1.91 ERA over 334 innings pitched. He averaged 21-16 with 45 starts and 348 innings per season from 1971 to 1975. And his earned run average over that period was 3.08.

As a starter, Wilbur Wood’s best season came in 1971, when he was 22-13 with a 1.91 ERA for the White Sox. He then won 24 games in each of the next two seasons.

As a starter, Wilbur Wood’s best season came in 1971, when he was 22-13 with a 1.91 ERA for the White Sox. He then won 24 games in each of the next two seasons.

 

Injury finally slowed Wood down, but it wasn’t his arm that gave out. In May of 1976, Tigers center fielder Ron LeFlore hit a vicious line drive back at Wood, shattering his knee cap. He made a valiant effort to come back, but was never the same pitcher, going 17-18 over his final two seasons and retiring after the 1978 campaign.

Wood finished with a career record of 164-156 and a 3.24 ERA. He was an All-Star selection three times.

 

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Shaw Me the Money

 

Glancing Back, and Remembering Bob Shaw

Right-handed pitcher Bob Shaw was a battler on the mound and, when necessary, a guy who wasn’t afraid to stand up to management in his own defense. In many ways, he was fashioned from the mold of his former Chicago White Sox teammate, Early Wynn, though not quite as talented, or nearly as irascible.

After a 5-4 rookie campaign in 1958, Bob Shaw was 18-6 for the Chicago White Sox in 1959. His .750 winning percentage was the best in the American League.

After a 5-4 rookie campaign in 1958, Bob Shaw was 18-6 for the Chicago White Sox in 1959. His .750 winning percentage was the best in the American League.

Shaw was signed by the Detroit Tigers in 1953 and made his debut in Detroit at the end of the 1957 season. He opened the 1958 season with the Tigers but was demoted to the minors, and when he refused to report over a bonus payment dispute, he was traded with Ray Boone to the White Sox for outfielder Tito Francona and pitcher Bill Fischer.

It was a career-transforming move for Shaw, partly because he got the opportunity to pitch, and partly because of the influence of his roommate, the Hall of Fame bound Wynn. Shaw went 4-2 for the White Sox over the rest of the 1958 season, pitching primarily out of the bullpen.

The bullpen was where he started in 1959, but by the end of the season, Shaw was the number two starter for the American League champions behind the 1959 Cy Young Award winner, his mentor Wynn. Shaw went 18-6 with a 2.69 ERA, his .750 winning percentage the best among American League pitchers.

Shaw was 13-13 for the White Sox in 1960, and in 1961 he was traded to the Kansas City Athletics with Wes Covington in a deal that brought pitcher Ray Herbert to the White Sox. Shaw was a combined 12-14 in 1961, and after the season’s end was traded again, this time to the Milwaukee Braves in a deal that brought Joe Azcue, Manny Jimenez and Ed Charles to the A’s.

Bob Shaw split his 11-year major league career between starting and the bullpen. He was effective in both roles. In 223 starts, Shaw was 85-81 with a 3.60 ERA and 14 shutouts. In 207 relief appearances, Shaw was 23-17 with a 3.20 ERA and 32 saves.

Bob Shaw split his 11-year major league career between starting and the bullpen. He was effective in both roles. In 223 starts, Shaw was 85-81 with a 3.60 ERA and 14 shutouts. In 207 relief appearances, Shaw was 23-17 with a 3.20 ERA and 32 saves.

Shaw had an excellent season for the Braves in 1962, going 15-9 with a 2.80 ERA and 12 complete game. He slipped to 7-11 in 1963, posting a 2.66 ERA and pitching mostly out of the Braves’ bullpen. In December of 1963 he was traded with Del Crandall and Bob Hendley to the San Francisco Giants for Felipe Alou, Ed Bailey, Billy Hoeft and a player to be named later. As a relief specialist, Shaw led the Giants in appearances with 61 and saved 11 games with a 7-6 record, posting a 3.76 ERA. In 1965, he moved into the Giants’ starting rotation and went 16-9 with a 2.64 ERA.

In 1966, the Giants sold Shaw to the New York Mets, and he finished the season at 12-14 combined. His last season was 1967, split between the Mets and the Chicago Cubs. Shaw went 3-11 with a 4.61 ERA.

In 11 major league seasons, Shaw was 108-98 with a 3.52 career earned run average. He was a member of the National League All-Star team in 1962.

 

 

 

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So Long, Señor.

 

This Week in 1960s Baseball

(November 4, 1965) Today Chicago White Sox manager Al Lopez announced his retirement after nine years as the team’s field leader. Lopez, nicknamed “El Senor,” had been the White Sox manager since the 1957 season. He was 56.

As the Chicago White Sox manager from 1957-1965, Al Lopez guided the White Sox to five second-place finishes and the American League pennant in 1959.

As the Chicago White Sox manager from 1957-1965, Al Lopez guided the White Sox to five second-place finishes and the American League pennant in 1959.

In nine seasons with the White Sox, no Lopez team had a losing season, finishing second five times while taking the American League pennant in 1959. (The White Sox lost the 1959 World Series to the Los Angeles Dodgers in six games.)

Before joining the White Sox, Lopez was manager of the Cleveland Indians from 1951 through 1956, leading the Tribe to five second-place finishes and to the pennant in 1954. (The Indians lost the 1954 World Series to the New York Giants in four games.)

In fact, between 1949 and 1964, the only teams other than the Yankees to have won American League pennants … were both managed by Lopez.

Lopez would return as White Sox part-time skipper on four occasions after 1965, the last time for 17 games before retiring for keeps in 1969. Lopez ranks eleventh all-time for managerial wins with 1,410.

Welcome to the Homer Ward

 

Glancing Back, and Remembering Pete Ward

While it’s no overstatement to say that pitching dominated the 1960s, it’s just as safe to say that, in the 1960s, pitching dominated the Chicago White Sox, especially in that team’s contending seasons.

Pete Ward was the American League Rookie of the Year in 1963 with a .295 batting average, 22 home runs and 84 RBIs.

Pete Ward was the runner-up for American League Rookie of the Year in 1963 with a .295 batting average, 22 home runs and 84 RBIs.

With solid starting arms such as Gary Peters, Joe Horlen and Juan Pizarro, and relievers such as Hoyt Wilhelm and Eddie Fisher, the White Sox featured the league’s deepest staff. And they needed it, with also one of the weakest hitting lineups in the American League.

The one “power” spot in the White Sox lineup came from a left-handed batter named Pete Ward.

Ward was signed by the Baltimore Orioles in 1958 and appeared in eight games with the Orioles at the end of 1962. That winter he was a throw-in in the blockbuster trade that brought Ron Hansen, Dave Nicholson and Wilhelm to the White Sox for Luis Aparicio and Al Smith.

Ward replaced Smith at third for the White Sox and made an immediate impact, beating the Detroit Tigers on Opening Day with a seventh-inning home run, the start of an 18-game hitting streak. For the season Ward hit .295, fifth in the American League, with 22 home runs, 84 RBIs, and 80 runs. He finished second in the league in total bases (289), hits (177), and doubles (34), and was named American League Rookie of the Year.

Ward followed up in 1964 by hitting .282 with 23 home runs and 94 RBIs. An off-season auto accident led to back and neck problems that would plague him, and cut his offensive productivity, for the rest of his career. He slipped to 10 home runs in 1965 and only three in 1966.

Ward made something of a comeback in 1967 with 18 home runs and 62 RBIs, but the weak Chicago lineup meant fewer good pitches to hit. His 18 home runs led the team, with only two other White Sox hitting as many as 10 home runs that season. His walks increased to 61 in 1967, and then to 76 in 1968, when Ward hit .216 with 15 home runs and 50 RBIs.

Lingering injuries forced Ward into a part-time role in 1969, and he spent one year as a reserve player for the New York Yankees in 1970 before retiring.

Ward finished his nine-year career with a .254 batting average and 98 home runs.

The Write Kind of Relief

 

Oh, What a Relief: Jim Brosnan

Jim Brosnan was one of the true pioneers of unvarnished sports journalism. His 1959 expose, The Long Season, while tame by today’s standards, was the first book of its kind, revealing life in the major leagues and preceding by a decade Jim Bouton‘s tell-all best-seller Ball Four.

Jim Brosnan was a key contributor to the Cincinnati Reds’ 1961 pennant. As the Reds’ bullpen ace, Brosnan was 10-4 with a 3.04 ERA and 16 saves.

Jim Brosnan was a key contributor to the Cincinnati Reds’ 1961 pennant. As the Reds’ bullpen ace, Brosnan was 10-4 with a 3.04 ERA and 16 saves.

The publication of The Long Season also coincided with what would be Brosnan’s most effective period as a major league reliever. He proved to be a major contributor to the Cincinnati Reds‘ pennant-winning season of 1961.

Brosnan was signed by the Chicago Cubs in 1946 and made his first appearance for the Cubs in 1954, when he went 1-0 in 18 relief appearances. He made the Chicago roster to stay in 1956, posting a 5-9 record as a starter and reliever with a 3.79 ERA. In 1957, working almost entirely out of the Cubs’ bullpen, Brosnan went 5-5 in 41 appearances.

In May of 1958, Brosnan was traded to the St. Louis Cardinals for veteran shortstop Al Dark. He went 11-8 that season with a 3.35 ERA, working as both a starter and as a reliever. But from this point in his career on, Brosnan would find himself relied on more and more as a reliever, and with more and more success in that role.

After the start of the 1959 season, Brosnan was traded to the Reds for Hal Jeffcoat. He had a combined record of 9-6 in 1959, and emerged as the Reds’ relief ace in 1960 with a 7-2 record in 57 appearances, all but two in relief. Brosnan posted a 2.36 ERA and recorded 12 saves for the Reds in 1960.

Jim Brosnan’s 1960 memoir, The Long Season, was one of the first sports books to give fans an authentic glimpse of what happened in the clubhouse. It chronicled Brosnan’s 1959 season with the Cardinals and Reds.

Jim Brosnan’s 1960 memoir, The Long Season, was one of the first sports books to give fans an authentic glimpse of what happened in the clubhouse. It chronicled Brosnan’s 1959 season with the Cardinals and Reds.

In 1961, as Cincinnati claimed the National League pennant for the first time in more than two decades, Brosnan had his best season, going 10-4 with a 3.04 ERA in 53 relief appearances. He also posted a career-high 16 saves, closing for a starting rotation that featured Joey Jay, Jim O’Toole and Bob Purkey.

Brosnan went 4-4 for Cincinnati in 1962 with a 3.34 ERA and 13 saves. In 1963 he was traded to the Chicago White Sox for pitcher Dom Zanni, and finished the 1963 season at 3-8 with a combined ERA of 3.13 and 14 saves, all with the White Sox. At the end of the 1963 season he was released by Chicago, and retired at age 33.

During his nine-season major league career, Brosnan compiled a 55-47 record with 67 saves and a 3.54 ERA.

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Why No Hall of Fame?

 

Glancing Back, and Remembering Sherm Lollar

Sherm Lollar was one of the American League’s best all-around catchers during the 1950s. In a career that extended from the 1940s into the 1960s, Lollar’s hitting, defensive prowess and his ability to manage pitchers was rivaled only by New York Yankees great Yogi Berra, and in more than one statistical category he outpaced the Yankees’ Hall of Famer.

Sherm Lollar was a rock-solid Chicago White Sox catcher for more than a decade.

Sherm Lollar was a rock-solid Chicago White Sox catcher for more than a decade.

Lollar played for four different teams during his 18-year career – the last 12 with the Chicago White Sox. He was originally signed by the Cleveland Indians in 1943, appearing in 28 games with the Tribe in 1946. He was traded to the Yankees in December of 1946 in the deal that brought pitcher Gene Bearden to Cleveland. In two seasons with the Yankees, he appeared in only 33 games and was traded in 1949 to the St. Louis Browns.

With the Browns, he finally got some playing time. He batted a combined .266 in three seasons, and was traded again – for the final time in his career – following the 1951 season. He was the everyday catcher for the White Sox for more than a decade.

He became a solid middle-lineup hitter with excellent defensive skills. And he improved steadily in both areas throughout his career.

Lollar batted .287 for the White Sox in 1953 and hit .293 in 1956. From 1952 through 1955, he averaged 11 home runs and 50 runs batted in – acceptable enough run production for a catcher who brought so much defensive and game-management ability to the field. But his offensive output improved through the rest of the 1950s, averaging 16 home runs and 78 RBIs from 1956 through 1959. When the White Sox won the American League pennant in 1959, Lollar led the team with 22 home runs and 84 RBIs.

When the Gold Glove award was inaugurated in 1957, the first Gold Glove for catcher went to Lollar … as did the second and third.

Sherm Lollar led the 1959 American League champs in home runs and RBIs … while winning his third consecutive Gold Glove.

In 1960 he batted .252 with seven home runs and 46 RBIs, and followed up in 1961 by batting .282 with seven homers and 41 RBIs. A fractured thumb limited him to 84 games in 1962, and he retired after the 1963 season, when he was used mostly as a pinch hitter.

During his 18-year major league career, Lollar batted .264 with 1,415 hits, 155 home runs and 808 runs batted in. He was named to the American League All-Star team seven times, and at the time of his retirement, Lollar ranked ninth in career home runs among catchers.

Outstanding for more than a decade? Definitely. Hall of Fame? Maybe. (Make that: Should be.)

Swooping Out of the Bullpen

 

Oh, What a Relief: Phil Regan

Right-handed pitcher Phil Regan (aka, the “Vulture”) began his 13-year major league career as a starter with the Detroit Tigers. But his greatest success on the mound came after he converted to a relief specialist, where he dominated National League batters from 1966-1969.

After struggling as a starting pitcher for six seasons with the Detroit Tigers, Phil Regan was traded to the Los Angeles Dodgers and established himself as one of the best relievers in the National League. In 1966, he was 14-1 with a 1.62 ERA and a league-leading total of 21 saves.

After struggling as a starting pitcher for six seasons with the Detroit Tigers, Phil Regan was traded to the Los Angeles Dodgers and established himself as one of the best relievers in the National League. In 1966, he was 14-1 with a 1.62 ERA and a league-leading total of 21 saves.

Regan was signed by the Tigers in 1956 and made his major league debut in Detroit in 1960. In six seasons with the Tigers, Regan was 42-44 with a 4.50 ERA. His best season in Detroit came in 1963, when he was 15-9 with a 3.86 earned run average, his only season with the Tigers when he registered an ERA under 4.00.

Following a 1-5 season in 1965, the Tigers traded Regan to the Los Angeles Dodgers for infielder Dick Tracewski. The Dodgers converted him to a reliever and the impact on his career – and on the Dodgers’ pennant-winning 1966 season – was immediate, and immense. Regan appeared in 65 games, all in relief, finishing 48 and saving 21, leading the National League in both of those pitching categories. His earned run average dropped to 1.62 and he posted a 14-1 record.

As the Dodgers’ fortunes dipped in 1967, so did Regan’s record. He finished that season at 6-9 with six saves and a 2.99 ERA. He appeared in five games for the Dodgers in 1968, winning two, before being traded with outfielder Jim Hickman to the Chicago Cubs for Jim Ellis and Ted Savage. The magic returned with his change of teams. Over the rest of the 1968 season, Regan was 10-5 with a 2.20 ERA. He appeared in 68 games for the Cubs, finishing 60 and saving 25, again leading the league in saves.

Regan remained the Cubs’ bullpen ace in 1969, appearing in 71 games and saving 17. He finished the 1969 season at 12-6 with a 3.70 ERA. From 1966-1969, he posted a combined record of 44-21 with 69 saves and a 2.60 ERA.

His numbers declined gradually in 1970 and 1971, going 10-14 with a 4.35 ERA and 18 saves over those two seasons. He was purchased by the Chicago White Sox in June of 1972 and was released later that season. He spent the next 30 years as a pitching coach and manager.

In 13 major league seasons, Regan compiled a record of 96-81 with a 3.84 ERA and 92 saves. He was named to the National League All-Star team in 1966.

 

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Look How Far a Fastball Can Take You

 

Glancing Back, and Remembering Juan Pizarro

As a major league pitcher, lefty Juan Pizarro had two careers. For the first nine years of his career, he was a starter (and occasional long reliever, as even ace starting pitchers saw occasional double duty in the 1960s). During the second half of his 18-year career, Pizarro was primarily a relief specialist, whose blazing fastball would no longer hold up for nine innings but remained effective in spot relief situations, especially against left-handed batters.

Juan Pizarro's best season as a starter came in 1963 with the Chicago White Sox. He was 19-9 with a 2.56 ERA. He also struck out 193 batters.

Juan Pizarro’s best season as a starter came in 1964 with the Chicago White Sox. He was 19-9 with a 2.56 ERA. He also struck out 193 batters.

Pizarro was signed by the Milwaukee Braves and was immediately a stand-out prospect in their minor league system, winning 23 games at Jacksonville in his first professional season. He spent the next three seasons pitching effectively in AAA but with limited success as a starter-reliever for the Braves. From 1957 through 1960, Pizarro had a combined record of 23-19 with a 3.93 ERA for Milwaukee.

In December of 1960, the Braves traded Pizarro and Joey Jay to the Cincinnati Reds for shortstop Roy McMillan. On the same day, the Reds sent Pizarro and Cal McLish to the Chicago White Sox for infielder Gene Freese. The trades that day were good for Cincinnati, as both Jay and Freese played critical roles in propelling the Reds to the 1961 National League pennant. The trades were also good for Pizarro, whose arrival in Chicago launched his career as a full-time – and highly successful – starter for the White Sox.

In 1961 for the White Sox, Pizarro achieved career highs in starts (25) and innings pitched (194.2). He struck out 188 batters on his way to a 14-7 season with a 3.05 ERA. After a 12-14 season in 1962, he followed up with 16-8 in 1963 (2.39 ERA) and 19-9 in 1964 (2.56 ERA). Pizarro and teammate Gary Peters (20-8 in 1964) were recognized as the two best left-handers in the American League. Pizarro was named to the American League All-Star team in both 1963 and 1964.

As a relief specialist from 1967 through 1974, Pizarro pitched for six different teams, going 33-39 with 20 saves in 206 appearances.

As a relief specialist from 1967 through 1974, Pizarro pitched for six different teams, going 33-39 with 20 saves in 206 appearances.

However, Pizarro’s success was starting to take a toll on his arm. All those innings, all those strikeouts, all those fastballs led to arm miseries and diminished performance in 1965 (6-3) and 1966 (8-6). The White Sox traded Pizarro to the Pittsburgh Pirates as the player to be named later in the acquisition of pitcher Wilbur Wood. Pizarro transitioned quickly to a relief role that meant more appearances – and fewer total innings – to take full advantage of his still explosive fastball.

From 1967 through 1974, Pizarro pitched for six different teams, going 33-39 with 20 saves in 206 appearances. His combined ERA for that period was 3.76. He retired after the 1974 season with a career record of 131-105.

 

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Sly Fox

 

The Glove Club: Nellie Fox

No player of his era could out-hustle Hall of Fame second baseman Nellie Fox. Or out-compete him. That was true in the batter’s box or in the field, where Fox established himself over a decade as a workhorse firebrand with a glove of gold.

Nellie Fox won three of the first four Gold Gloves awarded to second basemen, starting in 1957.

Nellie Fox won three of the first four Gold Gloves awarded to second basemen, starting in 1957.

Nellie Fox signed with the Philadelphia Athletics as a 16-year-old, 5-foot 6-inch first baseman, but was moved immediately to second base, where his size and agility eventually made him one of the American League’s best. After four seasons in the minor leagues and three seasons with the A’s, where he played a total of 98 games, Fox was traded to the Chicago White Sox in 1949 and was the team’s starting second baseman by season’s end, hitting .247. Over the next 13 seasons, Fox would hit for a combined .294 average, batting .300 or better six times. His best season at the plate would come in 1959, when he batted .306 with 71 RBIs. That season he was the American League’s Most Valuable Player in leading the White Sox to their first pennant in 40 years.

Fox was the toughest strikeout in baseball. He never struck out more than 18 times in any season, and led the league 12 times in at-bats-to-strikeouts ratio.

From 1952 to 1962, Fox played in an average of 155 games per season. That kind of durability is especially impressive when you consider that the American League regular season was 154 games until 1961. So it is not surprising that Fox was consistently at the top in fielding chances and outs. He led the league in assists six times and was among the top three in that category every season from 1951 to 1961. He led the league in putouts every year from 1952-1961. He was first in fielding percentage six times and the leader among second basemen in double plays five times.

Nellie Fox was the America League Most Valuable Player in 1959.

Nellie Fox was the America League Most Valuable Player in 1959.

When the major leagues initiated the Gold Glove award in 1957, it was natural that the first one would go to Fox. After Frank Bolling won the award in 1958, Fox repeated as the Gold Glove winner in 1959 and 1960.

Following the 1963 season, Fox was traded to the Houston Colt .45s and played one full season in the National League before retiring in the midst of the 1965 season. Fox was inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1997.